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Kidney Stones

What Are Kidney Stones?


One of the most frequently encountered disorders of the urinary tract, kidney stones are hard masses that develop when substances in the urine such as certain salt crystals and certain minerals build up and stick together. These stones can be found in the kidneys, the urinary tract, and the bladder.

Most stones are small enough to go unnoticed.  Typically, they can move from the kidney through the ureters and into the bladder, where they will eventually pass through the urinary tract. Sometimes, however, stones grow too large to pass, and they can become lodged in the kidney, ureter, or bladder, which may cause discomfort or pain as the stone reduces or prevents urine flow altogether.5

Stones that have a certain size may require medical intervention.


 

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References

  1. Monastersky, R. (1993). Kidney Stones: Don't Curb the Calcium. Science News,143(13), 196. doi:10.2307/3977303.
  2. Margaret Sue Pearle, MD, PhD.; David S. Goldfarb, MD, et. al. Medical Management of Kidney Stones: American Urological Association (AUA) Guideline, 2014.
  3. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.  Kidney stones in adults. NIH Publication No. 13–2495. February 2013. p. 1.
  4. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  5. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.  Kidney stones in adults. NIH Publication No. 13–2495. February 2013. p. 1.
  6. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  7. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
  8. Foods High in Oxalate-Topic Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.webmd.com/kidney-stones/tc/foods-high-in-oxylate-topic-overview
  9. Vegetables High in Purines. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/vegetables-high-purines-10306.html
  10. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill
  11. Cysteine. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2016, from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Cysteine
  12. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.  Kidney stones in adults. NIH Publication No. 13–2495. February 2013. p. 2-3.
  13. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill
  14. Portis, A. J., Sundaram, C. P.  Diagnosis and initial management of  kidney stones.  Am Fam Physician 2001;63:1329-38.
  15. Portis, A. J., Sundaram, C. P.  Diagnosis and initial management of  kidney stones.  Am Fam Physician 2001;63:1329-38.
  16. Portis, A. J., Sundaram, C. P.  Diagnosis and initial management of  kidney stones.  Am Fam Physician 2001;63:1329-38.
  17. National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse.  Kidney stones in adults. NIH Publication No. 13–2495. February 2013. p. 6-7
  18. Kasper, D. L., Fauci, A. S., Hauser, S. L., & Longo, D. L. (2015). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (19th ed., Vol. 1, Internal Medicine). Chapter 342: Nephrolithiasis. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.