Causes & Risk Factors
Anything that causes an increase in the intra-abdominal pressure can cause a hernia. The risk factors mainly include:9
- Family history of hernia
- Male gender
- Weight lifting, coughing, straining
- Cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infections
- Previous abdominal surgery
- Collagen disorders10
- Beadles CA, Meagher AD, Charles AG. Trends in Emergent Hernia Repair in the United States. JAMA Surg.2015;150(3):194-200.
- Chan Y, Durbin-Johnson B, Kurzrock EA. Pediatric inguinal and scrotal surgery – Practice patterns in in U.S. academic centers.J Pediatr Surg. 2016 Nov;51(11):1786-1790.
- Kahrilas PJ, Kim HC, Pandolfino JC. Approaches to the diagnosis and grading of hiatal hernia.Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology. Volume 22, Issue 4, August 2008, pp 601–616.
- Lomanto D, Shabbir IA, Cheah WK. Laparoscopic versus open ventral hernia mesh repair: a prospective study. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques. July 2006, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1030–1035.
- Pediatric Umbilical Hernia Repair. American College of Surgeons Division of Education. Reviewed April 2013.
- Mudge M, Hughes LE. Incisional hernia: A 10 year prospective study of incidence and attitudes. British Journal of Surgery. January 1985, Volume 72, Issue 1.
- Inguinal hernia repair: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved November 09, 2016, from https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007406.htm
- Kovachev, L.S. (2014) The Femoral Hernia: Some Necessary Additions. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 752-765.
- Pluta RM, Burke AE, Golub RM. Abdominal Hernia. JAMA. 2011;305(20):2130.
- Jones D. Anatomy and pathophysiology of hernias. In: Fischer J, ed. Hernia: Master of techniques in surgery. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:1-6.
- Incarcerated and Strangulated Hernias in Children. A Statistical Study of High-Risk Factors Arch Surg. 1970;101(2):136-139.
- Fitzgibbons Jr RB, Ramanan B, Arya S. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial of a non-operative strategy (watchful waiting) for men with minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias. Annals of Surgery. Volume 258(3), September 2013, pp 508–515.
- de Sá Ribeiro, F.A., de Araujo Fernandes, B. and de Araujo Simões Corrêa, J.P. (2014) Inguinal Hernia Repair with Local Anesthesia in the Outpatient—10 Year Experience. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 644-649.
- Nawaz T, Ayub MW, Murad F, Ali Q, Khan A, Anwar I. Comparison of laparoscopic total extra peritoneal (TEP) techniques versus transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) technique for inguinal hernia repair 2005, Issue 1. Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College (JRMC); 2015;19(3):220-222.
- Tran H. Safety and efficacy of single incision laparoscopic surgery for total extraperitoneal inguinal hernia repair. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons. 2011;15(1), pp 47-52.
- Arcerito M, Changchien E, Bernal O,Konkoly-Thege A, Moon J. Robotic inguinal hernia repair: technique and early experience. Am Surg. 2016 Oct;82(10), pp 1014-1017.
Hernia Symptoms & Diagnosis